Calcium Hydroxyapatite Vs Calcium Citrate: Full Comparison

Calcium Hydroxyapatite Vs Calcium Citrate: Full Comparison

Choosing the right calcium supplement can be confusing, with so many different types on the market. Calcium hydroxyapatite and calcium citrate are popular options, each with unique benefits for bone health.

Our blog dives into these supplements, comparing their effectiveness and impact on your body to help you make an informed decision. Keep reading to discover which calcium champion is best for you!


Understanding Calcium: General Physiology and Epidemiology

Calcium keeps our bones strong and our bodies functioning properly. It is a vital mineral found mostly in our bones and teeth. Our muscles, nerves, and blood also need calcium to work right.

People often don't get enough calcium from their diets. This can lead to weak bones or osteoporosis later in life.

Eating plenty of foods rich in calcium helps us stay healthy. Milk, cheese, and yogurt are all good sources of this important mineral. Some people do not eat dairy products for various reasons though.

They may be lactose intolerant or follow a vegan diet that excludes animal products. For these individuals, plant-based foods like tofu, almonds, and leafy greens can provide the needed calcium.

Research shows that what we eat affects how well we absorb this nutrient too. Proteins help us use it better while some fibers might make it harder to absorb. Remembering to balance different types of food is key for keeping a good level of calcium in the body.


The Importance of Calcium for Bone Health

Calcium plays a crucial role in maintaining bone health, with adequate intake being essential for preventing conditions like osteoporosis and osteopenia. It also has a significant impact on cardiovascular health, making it an important nutrient to focus on for overall well-being.

Osteopenia/Osteoporosis: The Calcium Connection

Bones need calcium to stay strong. Osteopenia and osteoporosis happen when bones get weak and thin, often due to not enough calcium. People with these conditions break bones easily, especially older adults and postmenopausal women.

The body uses calcium to build bone tissue but if it doesn't get enough from food, it starts taking it from the bones, making them fragile.

To keep bones healthy, adults should aim for 1000-1200mg of calcium every day. Yet only about 30% of Americans hit this goal. Getting plenty of calcium is important at every age but especially so as people get older to protect against fractures that can hurt their health and wallet—with the cost of broken bones adding up to billions in the next 20 years in the USA alone.

Cardiovascular Disease and Bone Mineral Disease: The Role of Calcium

Just as calcium is key to strong bones, it also plays a crucial role in heart health. People with healthy bones often have healthier hearts too. Calcium helps muscles contract and nerves send signals.

In the heart, this mineral manages the rhythm and beating strength.

Too much calcium can hurt your body though. It can end up in artery walls, making them stiff and leading to heart disease. Scientists found that vitamin K2 can block calcium from sticking to arteries.

This keeps blood flowing smoothly without building up plaque that causes blockages.

Keeping the right calcium balance is vital for your bones and heart alike. A diet good in both vitamin K2 and calcium helps stop bone diseases like osteoporosis and fights against heart trouble too.


Sources of Calcium: Dairy and its Issues

Milk, cheese, and yogurt are packed with calcium. Lots of people drink milk every day to get their calcium. But some can't handle dairy. They may be lactose intolerant, meaning their bodies can't digest the lactose in milk well.

This can cause stomach aches and other problems when they drink it.

Others choose not to eat dairy for different reasons. They might be vegans or worry about the way cows are treated on farms. Because of this, they look for other ways to get enough calcium without dairy products.

It's important to find good sources of calcium so bones stay strong and healthy.


Plant-based Dietary Sources of Calcium and Their Effects on Bone Health

Leafy greens like kale and spinach, as well as almonds, chia seeds, and fortified plant-based milk alternatives are rich sources of calcium. These foods are crucial for maintaining bone health and reducing the risk of osteoporosis.

Consuming these plant-based calcium sources can also contribute to overall cardiovascular health by ensuring proper calcium levels in the body.

Increasing intake of fruits and vegetables is known to positively impact bone density. Additionally, including calcium-rich plant products like tofu, figs, and sesame seeds in one’s diet can aid in maintaining healthy bones.

These natural dietary sources offer bioavailable calcium that supports skeletal strength without relying solely on dairy products.


Calcium Supplementation and Bone Health

One way to ensure adequate calcium intake for bone health is through supplementation. Two common forms of calcium supplements are microcrystalline hydroxyapatite and calcium citrate, each with their own benefits and drawbacks.

Understanding the effects of these supplements on bone health can help individuals make informed decisions about their use.

Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite

Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite (MCH) contains calcium and phosphate in hydroxyapatite form, making it an effective bone health supplement. MCH has been found to have a smaller impact on serum calcium levels compared to traditional calcium supplements, which may contribute to its safety profile.

Studies suggest that MCH shows comparable efficacy in reducing bone turnover while causing less of an increase in serum calcium concentrations. Longer trials have also demonstrated that MCH is as effective as other forms of supplemental calcium in slowing down bone loss.

Furthermore, research indicates that calcium supplements with lower effects on serum calcium concentrations could potentially be just as effective in suppressing bone turnover as those with higher impacts on serum calcium levels.

This makes Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite a promising choice for individuals seeking safer and equally beneficial options for supporting their bone health.

Calcium Citrate

Calcium Citrate is a standalone calcium supplement that supports bone health. It is recognized for its high bioavailability, making it easily absorbed by the body. This mononutrient form of calcium can be taken with or without food and is particularly beneficial for individuals who have low stomach acid or are taking medications that reduce stomach acidity.

Calcium Citrate also comes with the added advantage of not requiring acid for absorption, unlike other forms of calcium supplements.

In addition to being an excellent source of supplemental calcium, ensuring an adequate intake of dietary magnesium may lower the risk of osteoporosis. Additionally, increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables supports overall bone health.

Calcium Carbonate

Calcium carbonate is widely used as a calcium supplement due to its effectiveness in addressing calcium deficiency. It is popular for supporting bone health and preventing osteoporosis.

Many individuals choose calcium carbonate for its ability to meet their daily calcium needs and maintain healthy bones.

Moving on to the next segment, let's delve into the impact of "Acute and Long-Term Effects of Calcium Supplements on the Body".


Acute and Long-Term Effects of Calcium Supplements on the Body

Calcium supplements can have immediate effects on serum calcium and phosphate concentrations, as well as influence parathyroid hormone and markers of bone turnover. In the long term, they play a crucial role in maintaining skeletal and cardiovascular health.

Impact on Serum Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations

Calcium supplements can impact serum calcium and phosphate concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, found in bones, is known to be less likely to cause a sharp increase in blood calcium levels compared to soluble calcium salts typically used in standard supplements.

This difference could have implications for individuals needing supplementation due to low bone density or other health reasons.

The effect of different forms of dietary calcium on serum phosphate concentrations are also worth considering. For example, the consumption of bones as a source of calcium-hydroxyapatite presents not only the benefits derived from high-quality nutrients for bone-building but also potentially influences phosphate metabolism within the body, which can affect overall bone and mineral health.

Influence on Parathyroid Hormone and Markers of Bone Turnover

Calcium supplements can influence parathyroid hormone and markers of bone turnover. Smaller effects on serum calcium concentrations may still effectively suppress bone turnover. Both citrate-carbonate and MCH doses have shown comparable decreases in bone resorption over 8 hours, with this effect sustained at 3 months in postmenopausal women.

Previous studies indicate that MCH is as effective as calcium carbonate in slowing bone loss, while the citrate-carbonate dose increased ionized and total calcium concentrations for up to 8 hours without diminishment after 3 months.

Moving forward to "Nutritional Strategies for Skeletal and Cardiovascular Health," let's explore the balance between hard bones and soft arteries.


Nutritional Strategies for Skeletal and Cardiovascular Health

Balancing the potassium/sodium ratio and consuming a diet rich in plant-based sources of calcium can improve skeletal and cardiovascular health. It’s important to consider the role of vitamins, such as vitamin K, in promoting bone and cardiovascular health as well.

Hard Bones, Soft Arteries: Striking a Balance

Consuming bones from fish or poultry can provide essential nutrients like calcium and magnesium for strong bones. It's suggested that these nutrient-dense sources help maintain bone mass while reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of red meat has been associated with arterial plaque buildup. Therefore, incorporating bone-based foods in moderation alongside a balanced diet rich in plant-based sources could aid in striking a balance between maintaining skeletal health and preventing artery stiffness.

Balancing dietary choices with multiple calcium sources, including bone meal and plant-based foods, can contribute to healthier arteries and stronger bones.

The Potassium/Sodium Ratio and its Effect on Calcium Metabolism

A high potassium/sodium ratio, preferably 1.0 or higher, is linked to a 50% lower risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality. Reducing excessive sodium intake may help prevent bone demineralization.

High dietary potassium intake can counteract the damaging effects of high sodium intake, making it crucial for overall health. Additionally, diets moderate in protein are associated with normal calcium metabolism, while lower protein intakes reduce intestinal calcium absorption and raise parathyroid hormone levels.

As a result, ensuring an adequate potassium/sodium ratio and moderate protein intake is essential for maintaining optimal calcium metabolism and overall health.


Role of Vitamins in Bone and Cardiovascular Health

Vitamin K plays a crucial role in bone health by helping to regulate calcium and promote bone mineralization, while also showing potential benefits for cardiovascular health. Additionally, vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and utilization in the body, impacting both bone density and cardiovascular function.

Vitamin K and Bone Health

Vitamin K plays a crucial role in bone health as it's needed for the activation of osteocalcin, a protein essential for bone strength. Both Vitamin K1 and K2 supplementation have been found to improve bone health, making them important for maintaining strong bones.

Additionally, Vitamin K may also offer protective effects for both the skeletal and cardiovascular systems, highlighting its overall significance in promoting health.

Supplementation with Vitamin K has shown positive outcomes not just for bone strength but also potentially reducing cardiovascular risks. It is required for the activation of osteocalcin and deemed beneficial in improving overall bone health.

Benefits of Vitamin K in Cardiovascular Health

Vitamin K plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular health. High dietary menaquinone (vitamin K2) intake has been associated with reduced coronary calcification and decreased arterial calcium deposition, leading to improved vascular health.

Additionally, studies have shown that vitamin K and vitamin D have beneficial effects on the elastic properties of the vessel wall in postmenopausal women, emphasizing its significant impact on heart health.

Low vitamin K status is linked to increased vascular calcifications, which can be improved by effective vitamin K supplementation - indicating its potential to reverse vascular calcification and promote overall cardiovascular wellness.


Calcium Supplementation and Arterial Health

Supplemental calcium, especially calcium citrate, can potentially contribute to arterial health concerns in certain individuals. Studies have noted a link between excess calcium intake and an increased risk of cardiovascular events.

Particularly, this has been observed in individuals who primarily rely on supplements for their daily calcium needs rather than obtaining it through food sources. Excessive levels of arterial calcification are closely associated with higher risks of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.

On the other hand, it's important to note that the impact of supplemental calcium on arterial health may vary based on individual factors such as age, gender, and overall dietary habits.

Understanding these nuances is crucial when considering the potential effects of different forms of supplemental calcium on overall cardiovascular well-being.


Food as the Ideal Source of Calcium

Consuming bones or bone meal can provide a natural and bioavailable source of calcium, making it an ideal way to support bone health. To learn more about the best sources of calcium and their impact on the body, continue reading our blog!

Benefits of Consuming Bones or Bone Meal

Consuming bones or bone meal provides a rich source of calcium-hydroxyapatite, essential for building and maintaining strong bones. This natural form of calcium also contains other important nutrients such as magnesium and phosphorus, contributing to overall bone health.

Additionally, including bones in the diet may offer protective effects against conditions like osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease due to its nutrient composition.

Increasing consumption of calcium-rich foods like fermented dairy products, leafy greens, almonds, chia seeds, and bone meal can support skeletal and cardiovascular health. Moreover, bones provide a bioavailable source of minerals vital for maintaining strong bones and preventing mineral deficiencies associated with poor bone health.



In conclusion, calcium hydroxyapatite and calcium citrate both have their advantages for bone health. Hydroxyapatite may have a more stable effect on blood calcium levels, while citrate can be more easily absorbed.

The key is to focus on obtaining adequate calcium from dietary sources rather than relying solely on supplements. Both forms of calcium supplementation can play a role in maintaining healthy bones and cardiovascular health when used strategically alongside a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and animal proteins.

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